欧冠足彩

ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOZHUFANGHECHENGXIANGJIANSHEBUZHUGUAN

ZHONGGUOJIANSHEBAOSHEZHUBAN

DAZIYUANPINGTAI ■ DASHUJUGAODI

登录查找

科学规划理水营城,系统打造海绵城市
2019-10-31 19:05:12来源:中国建设报    作者:杨梦晗

他的老本行是城市基础设施规划设计,都是大块头的“硬件”。然而,他却对柔弱无形的“水”如数家珍;他是国内最早接触“低影响开发”(LID)理念和技术并实践应用的专家之一,他对有人简单地将“LID”直接等同于“海绵城市”的认知感到不妥,因为他认为“营城”先得“理水”,以构建城市生态体系为抓手,系统打造“大海绵”;他是典型的“空中飞人”,他的足迹不止一次踏遍了由中央财政支持的全国首批16个海绵城市建设试点,去得最多的试点,每年不少于5次。第二批14个海绵城市建设试点,专程考察调研已超过10个;他带领的团队,可谓“水军”中的精英,直接为9个试点城市提供技术咨询、规划服务……今天,让我们一起来聆听他的“海绵故事”,他就是——张全

微信截图_20191031185852.png

张全,男,教授级高工。住房和城乡建设部海绵城市建设技术指导专家委员会委员。中规院(北京)规划设计公司总经理。


1.杨梦晗:您最早从何时开始接触“海绵城市”概念?何时从项目层面开始具体实践这一理念,参与建设的试点和项目有多少?

●张 全:欧冠足彩准确地讲,“海绵城市”一词首次出现,是在2012年4月召开的“2012低碳城市与区域发展科技论坛”上。2013年12月12日~13日,习近平总书记在中央城镇化工作会议讲话中强调:“提升城市排水系统时要优先考虑把有限的雨水留下来,优先考虑更多利用自然力量排水,建设自然存积、自然渗透、自然净化的海绵城市”,“海绵城市”自此逐渐成为大众熟悉的新概念,一度成为网络热词。在此之前,大概是在2000年,我们就已经开始接触“低影响开发”(LID)。2000年后,中国城市规划设计研究院(以下简称中规院)在做规划时提到LID已经成为常态了。在技术上,2008年、2009年,中规院同欧盟合作项目时,已经对LID的计算方法、设计方法有了接触,当时主要是学习。

GUONEIJIANGLIDZUOWEIYIZHONGGAINIANZAITUI,DIFANGSHANGYEYOUYIXIEJIECHUBIJIAOZAODEGUIHUASHEJIDANWEIBIRUSHENZHENGUIHUAYUAN、ZHONGGUIYUANDENG,YIJINGKAISHITANSUORUHESHIYONGMOXING、RUHEJINXINGSHEJI。CHULEGUIHUAYUANZHIWAI,CONG2000NIANKAISHI,HAIYOUYIPIRENKAISHIZUO“YUSHUIGUANLI”,ZHUYAOZUOXIAOQUNEIDEYUSHUIGUANLI,BAOKUOZHONGGUOJIANZHUSHEJIYANJIUYUAN、BEIJINGJIANZHUDAXUEDENG。LIDDEGAINIANZAIGUONEIDESHIJIANZHUYAOKAISHIYUBEIJINGAOYUNHUICHANGGUANHEBEICHUANXINXIANCHENGJIANSHE,YEJIUSHISHUO,ZHONGGUIYUANZAI2008NIANJIUYIJINGKAISHIZAIXIANGMUZHONGPUBIANSHIYONGLIDJISHULE。

ZHONGGUIYUANZAOQIGENGUOWAI(OUMENG)HEZUOXIANGMUSHI,ZHUYAOJIZHONGZAIZHENGGEDEYUSHUIGUANLIFANGMIAN,ZHEIYERANGWOMENZAI“HAIMIANCHENGSHI”GAINIANTICHULAIZHIQIAN,JISHUZHUNBEISHANGYIJINGZOUDAOLEXINGYEQIANLIE。DANGSHIYEJIEZAIZHEIFANGMIANBIJIAOZHIMINGDETUANDUIZHUYAOYOUBEIJINGJIANZHUDAXUEDECHEWUTUANDUI、SHENZHENSHICHENGSHIGUIHUASHEJIYANJIUYUANDERENXINXINTUANDUIYIJIZHONGGUIYUANDEXIEYINGXIATUANDUI。WOMENCONGSHOUPIYOUZHONGYANGCAIZHENGZHICHIDEHAIMIANCHENGSHIJIANSHESHIDIANSHENBAOKAISHI,JIUYIJINGJIERUBUFENSHIDIANCHENGSHIDEHAIMIANCHENGSHIJIANSHEXIANGGUANGONGZUOLE。2015NIAN4YUESHOUPISHIDIANCHENGSHIMINGDANGONGBUHOU,WOMENXIANHOUWEISUINING、NANNING、TIANJINDENG9GESHIDIANCHENGSHITIGONGLEJISHUZIXUN、GUIHUADENGFUWU。JUTIXIANGMUYINSHULIANGTAIDUO,JIASHANGYUDAOJUTIWENTIHOUXUYAOSHISHIDIAOZHENG,MEIYOUZUOGUOJINGQUETONGJI。

2.杨梦晗:国内从2015年4月开始推行由中央财政支持的海绵城市建设试点,作为住房和城乡建设部海绵城市建设技术指导专家委员会委员之一,您这些年考察过多少试点及项目,如何看待海绵城市建设试点工作?

●张 全:全国首批16个试点城市中,专门为海绵城市建设而去的都不止一次,去得最多的是遂宁和贵安新区两个试点,每年不少于5次。第二批14个试点城市中,专门为海绵城市建设去考察服务过的有10个。

ZONGDELAIKAN,WORENWEIHAIMIANCHENGSHIJIANSHESHIDIANGONGZUODEZHENGTIXIAOGUOHENHAO。SHOUXIAN,SUOYOUDESHIDIANCHENGSHIDOUZHENZHENGJIESHOULE“GUIHUAYINLING”ZHEIGEGAINIAN,KAISHIRENZHENDIZUOXITONGFANGAN。XITONGFANGANBENSHENJIUSHIGUIHUADEYIBUFEN。RUJIN,HAIMIANCHENGSHIJIANSHESHIDIANGONGZUORANG“HAIMIANGUIHUA”WANQUANTUIKAILE,JIANSHELEYIXIESHESHI,JILEILEYIXIEJINGYAN,GUANLITIZHIYEZAIZHUBUWANGQIANTUIJIN,ZHENGTIXIAOGUOFEICHANGBUCUO,ERQIEHAIMIANCHENGSHIJIANSHEZAIHENDUOCHENGSHIDOUDEDAOLELAOBAIXINGDERENKE,SHEHUISHANGDEJIESHOUDUYEYUELAIYUEGAO。

欧冠足彩DUIYUGEGESHIDIANERYAN,HAIMIANCHENGSHIJIANSHEYOUYUSHEJILINGYUGUANG、BUMENDUO、XUEKEZAERCUNZAIZONGHEXING、FUZAXINGDENGTEDIAN,MEIYOUCHENGGONGJINGYANKEJIEJIAN,SHIDIANJIANSHENANMIANZOURUWUQU。DANJINGGUO4NIANDUOSHIJIANDETANSUO,DADUOSHUSHIDIANCHENGSHIDOUCONGYUANXIANDETARU“WUQU”ZHUANHUILE“ZHENGDAO”SHANG。

XUESHUFANGMIAN,YOUYUHAIMIANCHENGSHIJIANSHESHEJIDUOGEXUEKE、DUOGEBUMEN,SUOYIGEXUEKEZHIJIAN、GEBUMENZHIJIANDEZHENGYIBIJIAODUO,HAIMIANCHENGSHIJIANSHEFANERZAIGUOWAIDERENZHIDUGENGGAO。ZAI2018HAIMIANCHENGSHIJIANSHEGUOJIYANTAOHUISHANG,CANHUIDEGUOWAIZHUANJIADUIWOGUOHAIMIANCHENGSHIJIANSHEYOULEGENGSHENDERENZHI,HUIHOUZHUANXIEDEWENZHANG,PUBIANRENWEIZHONGGUOZAIHAIMIANCHENGSHIJIANSHELINGYUDESHILIYIJINGCHUYUGUOJILINGXIANSHUIPING。

3.杨梦晗:海绵城市建设必须坚持规划引领、统筹推进的原则,这也是决定海绵城市建设成效的关键因素,您作为国内城市规划和城镇水务方面的权威专家,如何评价国内试点城市在这方面的进展,有哪些值得业界关注和思考的经验教训?

●张 全:2011年,中规院开始组建城镇水务与工程研究分院。当时面临的第一个问题是针对北京“7·21”内涝事件提出解决方案,结合住房和城乡建设部要求,我们提出排水防涝导则的意见。在导则里,我们很明确地提出,排水防涝要有LID,要有源头处理。后来,习近平总书记提出“海绵城市”之后,住房和城乡建设部出台了《海绵城市建设技术指南——低影响开发雨水系统构建(试行)》,提出了“海绵城市(低影响开发)”。这样的提法是有争议的,因为将“海绵城市”和“低影响开发”连在一起提出,早期是有正面影响,但到后期出现的争议却越来越多。截至目前,仍然有不少人把“海绵城市”等同于“LID”。我认为,海绵城市是城市生态体系的一部分,它首先是城市生态体系的抓手,我们不能把“海绵城市”矮化了,只变成LID,更不能建个透水砖、下沉式绿地等设施,就认为是海绵城市了。海绵城市是整个城市层级的建设理念和方式,是一个系统化方案,而不是透水砖、雨水花园等单一的工程措施。近两年,大家一说到海绵城市,就觉得是屋顶花园、雨水管断接等技术或者工程设施。海绵城市跟大系统的关系,大家都避而不谈。

欧冠足彩WOMENBIXUCHENGREN,ZAOQIHAIMIANCHENGSHIDEJISHUTIXISHICONGLIDKAISHIDE。HOULAIWOMENJILIZAIGUONEITUIGUANGAODALIYADE“SHUIMINGANCHENGSHISHEJI”,DANYINJIGEHENZHIJIEDEWENTIMEIYOUCHENGGONG。YISHIMEIYOUNEIMEDADETUDI,ERSHIYIZHIMEIYOUGAOQINGCHU“DAHAIMIAN”(SHUILIFANGMIAN)HECHENGSHIDEGUANXI。WOMENYIZHIXIANGJIANGQIZUOWEIYITIHUALAIZUO,DANSHIYOUYUGEFANGMIANYUANYIN,JINGCHANGZAOCHENG“BAIKAILEZUO”DEJIEGUO。SUIPIANHUA,SHUODEZHIBAIDIAN,SHIJISHANGJIUSHIXINGYEDEQIEGE。BIRU,GUAN“DASHUI”DEBUGUANNEIBU,TAJIUBAYIQIEDOUFANGZAI“DASHUI”LIMIANQUZUO,XIANGHUJIANDEYITIHUAMEIBANFADATONG。

欧冠足彩ZAI4NIANDUODESHIDIANSHIJIANLI,WOMENYIZHIJIANCHIBASUOWEIDE“DAHAIMIAN”YINRUDAOZHENZHENGDEHAIMIANCHENGSHILILAI。SUOYIYIZHIQIANGDIAOZUOHAIMIANCHENGSHIYIDINGYAO“GUIHUAXIANXING”。“GUIHUAXIANXING”DEMUDE,SHITONGGUOHAIMIANCHENGSHIDELINIANHEJISUANFANGFA,TIGONGJISHUXIJIE,BACHENGSHILIGAILIUDEDONGXILIUXIALAI。ZHEIXIEDONGXIZAIZAOQIDEHAIMIANGUIHUALIHENSHAOBEIRENGUANZHU。

BIRUZAIHAIMIANCHENGSHISHIDIANJIANSHEMEIKAISHIZHIQIANDE2012NIAN、2013NIAN,WOMENZAIZUOGUIYANGSHIQUYU(XIANWEISHOUPIYOUZHONGYANGCAIZHENGZHICHIDEHAIMIANCHENGSHIJIANSHESHIDIANCHENGSHIZHIYIDEGUIANXINQU)DEGUIHUASHI,JIUTICHULE“LANLVKONGJIAN”,BIAOSHIYOUXIEDIFANGBUYINGJINXINGJIANSHE,XULIUCHUYIGETONGDAO,YULAILEJIUKEYICONGTONGDAOZOU,SHIJISHANGJIUSHIHAIMIANCHENGSHIJIANSHEZHONGTIDAODE“CHAOBIAOZHUNYUSHUIPAIXIETONGDAO”。DANDANGSHIYEMEIYOUZHEIGEGAINIAN,ZHUYAOMUDEYEBUSHIWEILENENGGOUPAIZOUCHAOBIAOZHUNYUSHUI,ERSHIYINWEINEIGEDIQU“SHUIMINGAN”TAIGAOLE,ZHOUBIANQUANSHIGEGESHIDESHUIKU。WOZAI2006NIANZUOGUIHUADESHIHOU,ZUOGUOZHEIGEDIQUDEZHANLVEGUIHUA,DANGSHIJIUJIANCHIZHEIKUAIDIBUYAOHUARUGUIANXINQU,DANSHI2011NIANGUIZHOUSHENGZHENGFUZUOGUIHUASHI,HAISHIJIANGZHEIKUAIDIHUAJINQULE,WOMENJIUBIANCHENGLEBEIDONGDIZUOGUIHUA。GAIDIQUDEHEXINSHISHUIHUANJINGANQUAN。YOUYUDANGSHIMEIYOUHAIMIANCHENGSHIDEGAINIAN,ZAIZUOGUIHUASHIJIUGENJULIDGAINIANLAIZUOSHUIHUANJINGANQUAN。WODANGSHITICHUZHEIGEDIQUYAOBASHUIMANXIALAI,XIALEYUBUYAORANGSHUIDOULIUZOU,DOULIUZOUDEHUAKENDINGHUIWURANZHOUBIAN,YINGGAIRANGSHUITINGXIALAI,JINGGUOZHIWU、SHIDIDENGYIXILIEZIRANCUOSHIDEXISHOU、GUOLV,ZAIPAICHUQU。

欧冠足彩DANGSHIZAIGUIHUALITICHUZHEIGEGAINIANYIJIWUSHUICHULICHANGBIAOZHUN、WEISHUIDEPAIFANGFANGSHI,DOUBEIRENCHAOXIAO,WOMENXIWANGZHEIGEDIQUWUSHUICHULICHANGDEWEISHUIBUYAOPAIFANG,ERSHIYUNYONGZIRANSHENGTAITIXI,CHONGFENLIYONGSHIDIXITONG、SHUIXITONGDEJINGHUAZUOYONG,DANMEIYOUBEIJIESHOU。DANGDISHEJIDANWEIRENWEIZHEIYANGDEZUOFABUJIEHESHIJI,TAMENXIANGZUOYIGEJISHIGONGLIDETANG,ZHIJIEBASHUIPAIDAOXIAYOUQU。DANGHAIMIANCHENGSHITICHUZHIHOU,TAMENCAIFAXIAN,WOMENDANGSHIDELINIANGENHAIMIANCHENGSHIJIANSHEHENQIHE。

欧冠足彩ZHIDAOMUQIAN,DAODIGUIHUAGAIZUOSHENME,HAISHIYOUBUSHAOZHENGYI。HAIMIANCHENGSHIHENZHONGYAODEYIDIANSHIBALANXIANKONGZHIZHU,SUININGSHIHAIMIANCHENGSHIJIANSHEZAIZHEIFANGMIANZUODEHENDAOWEI,DUIZHENGTIBUJU(SUOYOUDEHEDAO)ZUODEHENHAO。DIWADIDEBUJIANSHEBINGBUSHUYULANXIANDEFANCHOU,KENENGHENDUOSHIHOUDOUSHIMEISHUIDE,DANWOMENXIWANGJINLIANGJIANSHAOSHIGONG,BATABIANCHENGGONGYUAN,ERBUSHIJIANGQITIANQILAIDUOJIAJIANSHE。YINWEIYITIANQILAI,ZHENGGECHENGSHIDESHUXIANGJIUHUIFASHENGBIANHUA,HOUGUOHENYANZHONG,ZUIDADEWENTIJIUSHISHEIXIANJIANSHEIDAOMEI。

ZUOGUIHUADERENHENQINGCHU,GEDIXINQUBUKENENGZAI3NIANNEIWANCHENGSHENBAODEHAIMIANCHENGSHIJIANSHENEIRONG。ZAIBUKENENGQUANMIANWANGONGDEQINGKUANGXIA,WORENWEIYOUJIGEWENTISHIFENGUANJIAN:SHOUXIANYAOJIANLIWANCHENGDAXITONG,QICISHIJIANSHEWANSHANZHONGJIANXITONG,YONGGUIHUALAIBAOZHENGYUANTOUXITONG,ZUIHOUSHIYONGGUANLILAIBAOZHENGZHENGTI。JIANHAOMODUANXITONGZUITUCHUDEHEXINSHISHUIXI,BULUNSHIYONGXIANYOUDESHUIXI,HAISHIXINJIANSHUIXI,DOUKEYI。MODUANXITONGZUOHAOYIHOU,BUGUANBIEDEXIANGMUZENMEJIAN,MODUANYIJINGSHOUZHULE。JIERZHENDUISHANGYOUDEQITAXITONG,KANKANNAXIESHESHINENGJIAN。XIANZAIGUIANXINQUYIJINGQUEDINGLESUOYOUDEPAIKOU,QUANBUZUOWANHANXI,ERJIXITONGYEZUOCHENGLE,SHENGXIADEYONGYANGEDEGUIHUAGUANKONGJIUKEYISHIXIANYUQIMUBIAOLE。DAXITONGNENGGOUBAOZHENGZAIJIANSHEGUOCHENGZHONG,JISHICHANSHENGZAIDUODEWURAN,YEBUHUICUIHUIZHENGGEXITONG。

YAOSHIYI23HAOWEN(ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOZHUXILINGDI23HAO《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOCHENGSHIGUIHUAFA》)LAIYAOQIUDEHUA,CHULESHIDIANCHENGSHIZHIWAI,QITACHENGSHIDEGUIHUAYAOZUODAOSHENMEZHUANGTAI?WOGERENRENWEIHAIXUYAOJIXUTUIJIN,JIANCHI“YIJIANGDAIBU”,ZUIHAOSHIQUANGUOXINGDIZAICUYICI“HAIMIANGUIHUA”,BAGUIHUAHEXITONGDEGUANXISHULIQINGCHU,RANGGEGECHENGSHIZIJITICHUDAO2020NIANNENGZUOSHENMESHI,ERBUSHIDANYIDIKAOGUOJIACENGMIANDEGUANLI。DAOLE2020NIAN,ZAIZUZHIXIANGGUANBUMENQUJIANCHA。CIWAI,YAODUIGEGECHENGSHIDEHAIMIANGUIHUA、SHISHIFANGANJINXINGFUDAO,RANGQIZUODEGENGYOUXIAOLV,BAXITONGXINGZUODEGENGQIANGYIXIE。

微信截图_20191031185834.png

12
网友评论
 Top